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The Theory of Gravitation of Kopelke



  1. Gas sticks.
  2. Gas sticks gas.
  3. Gas sticks not somehow but well defined.
  4. There is no way to get rid of the adhesion.
  5. Gas sticks two dimensional in a three dimensional world.
  6. The skins of the gas are trying to become minimal areas.


1. is clear. Not only liquids, gases, too, have adhesion- and cohesion-forces.
2. that is the point. Here the physicists did not look at exactly enough.
3. how a gas sticks depends on its molecules, temperature, pressure. A gas with a difference towards another of 0.0001 millibar sticks just different! The formula of the barometrical highness is valid although for differences of 1 nanometer. Atoms realizes this very well.
4. therefore there is no vacuum, even a room with only one molecule on a cubic lightyear is not empty.
5. gas forms like liquids surround solid objects skins. This skins are becoming more and more limp with the distance. And skins are areas, they have no beginning and no end, so they are in extension of Aristotle not dividable.
6. the molecules of gases are permanent in movement. Because of their electric charge they emit electromagnetic waves. Therefore they lose energy. And if the skin of the gas changed into a energetically lower condition, it cannot jump out of it by itself. And the lowest condition of energy is the minimal area.


And what makes the apple fall?
On the surface of the apple sticks gas. On the surface of the earth sticks gas, too. Is the skin of the gas upon the apple thicker as the skin of the earth would be at the place, if the apple would not be there, the body gets an acceleration perpendicular the equipotential areas of the isobars of the air towards the direction, where the skin of the gas of the earth has a higher pressure, too.


A planet with two "moons"
Bild "Gravitation:Gravitation500.png"
Upon the red apple sticks to much gas, it speeds-up "down",
upon the orange balloon sticks to less gas, it speeds-up "up".
The minimal areas of the isobars are produced again after relinquishing.
green = planet | blue = a cut through the isobars

At a ball the acceleration shows normally towards the middle of the ball and this is mostly identically with the centre of gravity. But this has nothing to mean. This is the mistake of Newton thoughts. Not only the earth under his apple tree is a nearly ball, even the skin of the gas surround the earth in the height of the apple is a ball.


The both models of gas

Bild "Gravitation:Gas_alt.png"   Bild "Gravitation:Gasmodell_neu.png"
left: the old, wrong one        right: the new, more exactly one

In the classical picture of a gas the molecules move freely in the room like the balls of a billiard desk in the area, all somehow chaotic, only the overall momentum and the overall energy must stay the same. The coincidental pelting of the molecules delivers the Brown molecular movement. In the statistic middle you get the barometric formular of the highness. Newton was a supporter of this model of gas. He explained the turning of a windmill with the shelling of gas particles out of the direction of the wind. But this is wrong because after hitting the profile of the propeller the particles cannot disappear just so. Another mistake of thought by Newton.

In the right picture is shown the new model of gas. Upon the (grey) solid object at right sticks gas. This gas cannot "disappear". The molecules of the gas try to get as much room they can get. On this gas film sticks another gas film. And on this gas film sticks another gas film. They are getting thinner. Like at the graphite it is easy to move the films along their plane, the more away from the solid object the more easy. Otherwise there would not be wind (and my windmills would not function ;-) ). If a solid object is very narrow (in the dimension of some distances of the atomes), the molecules of the air cannot surround the object easily. They have a problem to decide, on which surface to belong to. This results in a quavering, after its explorer: the Brown molecular movement.
Wind is nothing else than a shearing of the skins of the air. Hits the wind upon an aerodynamic formed profile of a propeller windmill the upon the profile sticking skins of the air are carried away. On the "hunchback" more than in the cavity. This leads in the end to a circulation of some skins of the gas surround the profile. And these delivers the Magnus-force even without the solid object turns round. And therefore the buoyancy force is a Magnus-force induced from outside.


Dice-planet
Bild "Gravitation:Isobaren_Wuerfel.png"
The isobares of a planet with a dice shape.


In ease the isobars are minimal areas. Isobars are places with the same pressure. These minimal areas have no corners or edges. Have a solid object corners and edges like a dice, then the isobars try to defuse them. It results in a pillow shown in the picture above. A body within the skin of the gas accelerate perpendicular to the equipotential areas. In A shows the acceleration toward the middle of the dice. Not in B.


You cannot see the isobars, so you can take the picture of a spoon in a jar of honey. The honey sticks. Do you want to draw the spoon out, you need a high force. The force is higher than in a cup of water, and higher than in a cup of air, and higher than in a cup of helium... The honey tries to get an oval surface. If you want to pull the spoon out of the honey, you heighten the surface of the honey, and this costs energy. This is the same effect if you try to leave a swimming-pool by a ladder, and if you try to leave the isobar in 1 meter highness to reach the diving board in 3 meter highness.

And what has Lord Cavendish measured with his turning scale? The expansion (minification) of the isobar areas of the air that sticks upon the balls.


If you hold an huge set square on the blackboard of the teacher and if you draw the set square back very fast, the air has not enough time to flow within the new place between set square and blackboard because it sticks towards the other gas. The set square can break. And this is the reason why the moon cannot fly away from the earth. Between earth and moon is only very thin air. This thin air must filled up first. But from where? Sometimes a comet flies past and brings matter. Then the moon can leave the earth a bit. The curve of the moon wear out with the time. But for the human consciousness very slow.

And the set square area at Saturn and Jupiter are there circle areas. Then this suits.


The Rings of Saturn


What about the rings of some planets? A cylinder has got no equator. Therefore the existing of rings can only be explained by the sphere-shape and the rotation axle. Because of the centrifugal force the planets are rotation-ellipsoides which poles are oblated. This oblating is not only guilty for the fluid-surface but also for the skins of the gas. And there the satelites swim along the area of the isobar away from the planet and they gather above the equator. If they lose energy by clashes they gather there faster. At little rocks this happens faster than at huge moons which oscillate surround the equator.

The origin of the rings of Saturn
Bild "Gravitation:SaturnCassini.jpg"
Saturn, picture made by the space probe Cassini-Huygens (source of the picture: Wikipedia)

Upon the grey dust particle sticks a (red) gas molecule. In the picture above there are four (yellow) gas molecules drawn in. The both far away are hardly moving and also the gas molecule at the north pole is firm to the room. But the gas molecule at the equator moves. Because gas sticks, the equator gas molecule draws the gas molecule upon the dust particle and so the gas particle itself with it. Because the dust particle cannot get rid of its transverse impulse, it oscillates surround the area of the equator until it hits other dust particles that squelch the particle further. When the dust is as far sqelched that it becomes gas molecules itself, the formerly dust particle moves towards the planet and backfills the gas skins of the planet. So the whirl theory of Descartes, that was supported by Leibniz, is not quite wrong but without an aether.
(The magnetic field cannot be the source for the rings because Uranus has rings, too, but its magnetic field is a quadrupole.)



At fog you can see the droplet hover in the air. How it is possible? After Newton water is heavier than gas. It cannot depend on the temperature alone because a 37°C cup of tea does not ascend in winter. Answer: the smaller the droplet is, the higher is the internal pressure. And at a compressed surface at the same temperature sticks less gas, the droplet ascends.

(You can explain it by the repulsion of the molecules of the air, too. Below the droplet are more molecules than above.)


So what is a solid object?


Bild "Gravitation:Festkoerper.png"
The structure of a solid object

A solid object realizes the differences of the pressure outside very well. But the atoms are caught in a three dimensional cage and in this cage the distances must be constant in every direction of the room. In the atomic range the solid object can only completely or not at all extend. Because it is not possible to shield the gravitation, the atoms within the solid object know the pressure outside. To transmit the information only vibration and rotation are possible.


And what is a liquid?


Bild "Gravitation:Fluessigkeit2.png"
Not a gas and not a solid object: the liquid

If some molecules of the gas are getting as near they can build solid object-crystals but others not, it results in a hybrid: instead skins out of gas skins out of solid objects. Like at the gas this skins are relocatable. The inner friction is much higher than at the gas because the skins of the solid object always break and are built again immediately. Light has it harder to pass through the atoms.